بحث (مفهوم الوقت) في قصائد أدون ميور
بحث "مفهوم الوقت" في قصائد أدون ميور
تقدم به الاستاذ الباحث علي اسماعيل الجاف
The Life of Edwin Muir
The Concept of Time in Edwin Muir's Poems
Beyond the fluctuations of poetic fashion during the last thirty years, the movements and counter-movements in thought and technique have stood few poets whose individual contributions are in many ways no less remarkable. Among them is Edwin Muir. Although he has initiated no new techniques, his voice is very much his own, and in an age when originality has to been confused with novelty, he is now fully revealed as one of truly original poets of our time.
Muir has given us an account of the first thirty-five years of his life. The best was to understand Muir's poetry, particularly his thoughts and ideas, is by reading his life carefully and joining in all its stages in his deep impressing which are reflected in his poem as gradual thought and various ideas. His childhood of great significance for Muir as an adult and as a poet, for it gave to him an image of what life can and ought to be, which he continually brought into contract with the sad mess that modern civilization has made of things. The community in which he lives as a child was a traditional one which looked to the past rather than the new ways of the contemporary world.
In Muir's case, the big step came when he and the family moved from Orkney to live in Glasgow. A life-style of Glasgow has been more different from that which he had known in Orkney. What struck him most, was the way known in Orkney. What struck him most was the way that industrial capitalism all sense of community and co-operative gave way to competitiveness and isolation.
The fundamental search in Muir's life and in his poetry was to find some to bring together these intense experiences of good and evil, away which was not not merely are treated in to childhood, but to combine the peace and security of his past with recognition of the real evil in the modern world. The modern world is described by Muir's poem "The Combat"
"That was no place
or time for chivalry or for grave."
(From Hardy to Hardy, PP.76-77)
His travelling among various European capitals and cities such as London, Prague, Rome and finally in Britain have created a suitable atmosphere for Muir. Muir was able to see the problem of evil of world explicitly indifferent aspect. But, finally, Muir was aware of the importance of evil in the world.
Muir, in his vivid symbolic confrontation of great forces, is able not only to describe the world that we live in but to give us some deep understanding of its meaning. Edwin Muir inspirited his odd symbols and depicted them by his poetry in simple and brilliant ways.
(1)William J. C. Connected Poems. (London: Fabor and Faber, 1960), PP.76-77.
The Life of Edwin Muir
What strikes most readers, researchers and critics who have followed the development of Edwin Muir is firm and exchangeable relationships among Muir's stager of life. Each stage of Muir's life has well-established distinction experiences in his mind and then in his poetry.
When one tries to write or read about Edwin's life: he should realize that Muir's life is not a simple one, but it is very complex and compound. His life is not complex and compound in its stages only; but also in the terrible experiences and serve trials which he has faced up. So, Edwin Muir's life has become very important to each one who tries to study or understand his charm and simple verse.
Edwin Muir was born in the Folly, his father's rented farm in Deernessparish, Orkney, on 15 May 1887, the youngest of six island of Wyre and six idyllic years spent there were to give Muir his vision of Eden. Edwin Muir is the only major poet in English in modern times to have grown up in a folk community where the farming economy and the literary culture were essentially what they had been five hundred years age. Of his childhood on those farms, he has written that there was no great distinction between the ordinary and the fabulous.
His earlier correspondent childhood has formed his psychological and physical attraction to the important realities in his word and out work world. Childhood in Edwin Muir's life is not ordinary.
The fundamental search in Muir's life and in his poetry is to find some way to bring Muir's life together these intense experiences of good and evil, a way which is not only a retreat into childhood but way which would combine the peace and security he had known then with a recognition of the very real evil in the modern world.
Childhood has well-established the qualities of reality in Muir's mind about the two world's -the ordinary and the fabulous. For Muir the two worlds fuse and are one. The image for either is often being deriving from the landscape of the Orkney and the memories of his childhood there.
Today, not many people understand Muir's point of view about time in his earlier life in a distant isle. From the view point of our day-life, this childhood movement of watching and initiative inspiration may seem to be a mere infantile regression of light from reality. His last few years were spent in Britain, where he died on 3 January 1959.
The Concept of Time in Edwin Muir's Poems
Muir's theme is coherent as a whole and achieved in process of growth, especially his thoughts about time. Some of his first poems contain elements which are more and more emphasized and developed. The development of Edwin Muir himself, as a poet, is not simply changed from one situation and atmosphere to another, but it is also a shift of themes and a gradual acquisition of firm thoughts.
This growth of thought doesn't happen in random way; it happens as a reaction to what man's response could be natural to a world which has changed so rapidly that no one knows where he stands. Thus Edwin Muir's reaction is by opposing to the deliquescence of his time a coherent thought and well-established tradition.
The stable of equipoise between his thought and his time is essential to erect his viewpoint about these different themes which are spread in his poems. His time is necessary to shape his general philosophy and gives its framework in life. The artistic works express whether or not, their time, through which they define themselves and yet should be sufficiently detached their time to be able to watch it objectively.
Muir's relation with his time is not tradition. He is not much influenced by new modern subjects. He accepts his time because he sees it in relation to the past, although he proposes that "we must shape here a new philosophy".
The idea of time occupies a large place in Muir's thought, and his poems express his various impression and ideas about the same reality. Each poem has a new impression about time and presents one aspect of this ambiguous problem of time. Thus we should not neglect any hint of time in Muirs' poems, because of the interaction of these aspects together to achieve one coherent vision about time. Edwin Muir presents his ideas about time neither as a fixed object nor as a definition obstruction: it is modified by various points of views and attitudes of the poet, so that the unity of his works consisted in the coherence of his interpretation of time rather than in recurrence of the same theme.
Generally speaking, each poem could be considered separately, but the whole is so coherent that it is better not to loose sight of it.
But, many other people who recognize Edwin Muir's view point about his charming memories, have realize the positive significance in his time less moment, as he does in "The Myth":
"Time with his hourglass and his scythe
Stood dreaming on the dial,
And did not move the whole day long
That immobility might same
Continually the dying song,
The flower, the falling wave"
(An Autobiography, P.18)
It is very paramount to remember here that, Edwin has referred and symbolized the idea of time not only by using the abstract imager, but also by using the concrete ones. In one of his poems, which is called "The Lullaby Sleep", we see the abstract idea becomes the symbol of eternity. But, in another poem, which is called "The Mountain", we see the concrete idea, becomes the symbol of time.
Time, one of Edwin's Muir's subjects of his poetry, is seen with integrity of mind and a clear-sighted love of truth. These philosophical explanations of Muir to this complex dualism of time have revealed over many of his poems. Edwin Muir realizes from the beginning the importance of this concepts in poetry, and how it is noticed from many other poets. Yet, Muir brought and produced a perfect thought and an excellent point of view about time. Sometimes, he accepts the prior explanations-Greek conception of "Fixed Fate" and a changeable destiny -on time, but he also was subtle in examining, forming and directing the time concept according to his opinions, and then translating them as thoughts, images and symbols in his verse.
Eventually, examining through his poetical microscope, he could see carefully that closed relation among regarded one of important aspects of Muir's view about time. His poems are gradually trying to shed lights on this relation between Man and Time: "Man is a slave of time, but time itself has two aspects: positive and negative. Time is the creator of beauty; yet, it is at the same time, the destroyer. So, time is an unbreakable chain of event."(1)
The parallel ideas in Muir's mind enable him to form his own views about Time. He corresponds between his childhood in Orkney where he exists within immortality and the conditions of Eden. Then, he paralyses his divorce and distance from this timeless world with the Fall of Man into the labyrinth of harsh environments in modern world where Man becomes fasten in chain of mortal time. Finally, those fatal strife, between two not similar worlds arise his view about eternity. So, he increasingly strives to regain Eden via imagination to live there with tranquility and eternal peace.
(1) John Black, Thought in Twentieth Century. (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, Ltd, 1974), P.81.
Muir, E. An Autobiography. London: Fober and faler, 1954.
Schumi, R. Thought in the Twentieth Century. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul,
Willman, M. Ten-Twentieth-Century Poets. London: Harrap, 1975.
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